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Greek hero from Thessaly, the main character in Homer's Iliad.
Agon, agones
The assembly of people who gathered to watch the games is known as an agon. The singular "agon" is also used to denote a contest in the games, and the plural "agones" refers to "the games" in general.
Akon, acontists, ankyle
The akon is a light spear or javelin, thrown by the acontists using the ankyle, a rawhide thong roughly six feet in length.
A large two-handled jar for wine, oil, and other liquids is known as an amphora.
Amphyctionic League
A league of city-states who maintained control of the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi.
A type of chariot race with two mules (beginning 500 BC).
Apobates, anabates
Apobates literally means "one who dismounts," and is used to describe an armed warrior who jumps from a moving chariot. Anabates literally means "one who mounts," but usually refers to a rider. "Anabates" is sometimes used as a synonym of "apobates."
Greek god of truth, light, poetry, music, and prophecy.
Aulos, aulode, aulete
An aulos can be any wooden instrument, but usually means the double pipes. An aulode is a singer accompanied by the aulos. An aulete is the player of the aulos.
A Christian empire based in Byzantium/Constantinople; the eastern Roman Empire.
Greek goddess of corn and fertility.
The diaulos was a footrace which was twice the stadion in length.
A diskos is a disc-shaped weight thrown by athletes.
The dolichos is a long-distance footrace.
A race of Greeks who supposedly invaded Greece from the north at the end of the Mycenean period.
Doric Order
A set of conventions that dictate which elements could be combined to make a Doric building. The Doric Order defines the concept of a building, which includes rules for correct proportions, the use of distortions to simulate perspective and foreshortening, the arrangement of architectural members such as the pediment and metopes, and the design, use and shape of columns. Elements of the Doric Order can be seen in buildings dating back as early as the 7th century BC, and the Doric order was used primarily in the construction of buildings on the Greek mainland and in western colonies.
Drachma, obol
Obols and drachmae were the monetary units used in ancient Greece. One drachma was worth six obols.
The inhabitants of the territory of Elis.
A stone or wood partition used to divide the course used in chariot races.
Sacred truce instituted for the duration of the Olympic games.
Gymnasium, gymnasia
The gymnasium (plural gymnasia) is an athletic practice ground where exercises in the nude took place.
Halter, Halteres
A halter (plural halteres) is a small weight, shaped like a dumbbell, that is used by jumpers to improve distance.
Queen of the gods.
A race run by females at Olympia in honor of the goddess Hera.
A Greek hero famed for his great strength and the execution of twelve labors.
Straps of ox hide boxerswrapped around their first knuckles, palms, wrists, and forearms. Later on, straps of harder leather were added around the knuckles in order to make the blows harder.
A himation is a cloak or mantle.
A hippios is a short-distance run of four stades, or 800 ancient feet, in length.
The hippodrome is a track for horse races.
A name given to the Greek poet or poets of the eighth century BC who composed the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.
An epic poem of the eighth century BC, supposedly composed by Homer, that tells the story of the wrath of Achilles in the backdrop of the Trojan War.
The ancient Greek javelin was a thrown weapon which had a shaft of wood and a metal tip which permitted it to stick into the ground when it landed.
Bronze dowels which attached the wheel to the axle of the chariot.
A mythical Boetian prince who became a local hero at Isthmia.
Metopes are part of the Doric frieze course which is located above the architrave (which is the course found directly above the columns). Metopes are rectangular spaces set off by sections of vertical lines known as triglyphs. The metopes on Greek temples were often decorated with relief sculpture.
Olympia, on the northwest Peloponnesian peninsula, was an important religious center and the site of the Olympic games, the most important festival of the ancient Greek world. The games were officially established in 776 BC and held every four years.
A mythical young prince who was killed by a snake and became a local hero at Nemea.
A palaestra was a wrestling ground on which the athletes trained for the competitions.
Panathenaia, Panathenaic Festival
The Lesser or Greater Panathenaia or Panathenaic Festival were the Athenian festivals held in honor of Athena on her reputed birthday on the 28th of Hektombaion (roughly equivalent to the month of July in our calendar), and celebrated every fourth year with particular splendor (the Greater Panathenaia).
Pankration is a Greek athletic event which combined boxing and wrestling with no holds barred except for biting and gouging.
The Parthenon is a temple, sacred to Athena. It was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC, and afterwards rebuilt by Perikles and decorated with elaborate sculpture by Pheidias.
A companion of Achilles, killed in The Iliad.
The recessed triangular space bordered by the architrave and the two gables of the roof. Pediments are found on the short ends of temples or other buildings.
Atheltic competition with five different events: the stade, broad jump, javelin throw, discus throw, and wrestling.
Phaleron is the area near Athens where early Athenians beached their ships before the port of Peiraeus was developed.
A lyric poet of the sixth and fifth century, whose epinicean odes immortalize victors at Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia, and Nemea.
Greek god of the sea.
A giant snakelike monster who inhabited Delphi and was killed by the god Apollo.
Mythical king of Corinth.
Messengers who carried the word of the sacred truce and announced the date of the Olympic games all over the Greek world.
A stade is 200 ancient feet in length.
The stadion was originally a unit of measurement, 600 feet in length, which gave its name to the footrace of the same distance.
A stadium is a structure specifically designed for sporting contests and other spectator events. The name comes from the latinized Greek word stade, a unit of measurement equivalent to about 600 feet, which was the length of the footrace in the ancient Olympics and the overall length of the ancient Greek stadia.
A strigil is an instrument used for scraping the skin after a bath; it was used by athletes to remove sweat, dirt, and oil from their skin.
A type of chariot race either with two horses (beginning 408 BC) or with two foals (beginning 268 BC).
A type of chariot race, either with four horses (beginning 680 BC) or with four foals (beginning 384 BC).
Mythical king and founding hero of Athens.
Theodosius II
Byzantine emperor who outlawed the Olympic Games in AD 393
A tripod is a three-legged stand which was sometimes awarded as a prize in Greek athletic contests.
Greek sky god and king of the gods.

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