dblp.uni-trier.dewww.uni-trier.de

Nader H. Bshouty Vis

List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server - FAQ
Coauthor Index - Ask others: ACM DL/Guide - CiteSeerX - CSB - MetaPress - Google - Bing - Yahoo
Home Page

*2009
127EENader H. Bshouty, Hanna Mazzawi: Reconstructing Weighted Graphs with Minimal Query Complexity. ALT 2009: 97-109
2008
126EEAmos Beimel, Francesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Eyal Kushilevitz, Stefano Varricchio: Learning Automata. Encyclopedia of Algorithms 2008
125EELaurence Bisht, Nader H. Bshouty, Lawrance Khoury: Learning with errors in answers to membership queries. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 74(1): 2-15 (2008)
124EENader H. Bshouty, Claudio Gentile: Guest Editors' Introduction: Special issue on Learning Theory (COLT-2007). Machine Learning 72(1-2): 1-4 (2008)
2007
123 Nader H. Bshouty, Claudio Gentile: Learning Theory, 20th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2007, San Diego, CA, USA, June 13-15, 2007, Proceedings Springer 2007
122EERotem Bennet, Nader H. Bshouty: Learning attribute-efficiently with corrupt oracles. Theor. Comput. Sci. 387(1): 32-50 (2007)
2006
121EENader H. Bshouty, Iddo Bentov: On Exact Learning from Random Walk. ALT 2006: 184-198
120EENader H. Bshouty, Ehab Wattad: On Exact Learning Halfspaces with Random Consistent Hypothesis Oracle. ALT 2006: 48-62
119EELaurence Bisht, Nader H. Bshouty, Hanna Mazzawi: On Optimal Learning Algorithms for Multiplicity Automata. COLT 2006: 184-198
118EENader H. Bshouty, Hanna Mazzawi: Exact Learning Composed Classes with a Small Number of Mistakes. COLT 2006: 199-213
117EENader H. Bshouty, Michael Kaminski: Polynomial multiplication over finite fields: from quadratic to straight-line complexity. Computational Complexity 15(3): 252-262 (2006)
116EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: Maximizing agreements and coagnostic learning. Theor. Comput. Sci. 350(1): 24-39 (2006)
2005
115EERotem Bennet, Nader H. Bshouty: Learning Attribute-Efficiently with Corrupt Oracles. ALT 2005: 183-197
114EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: Exploring learnability between exact and PAC. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 70(4): 471-484 (2005)
113EENader H. Bshouty, Elchanan Mossel, Ryan O'Donnell, Rocco A. Servedio: Learning DNF from random walks. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 71(3): 250-265 (2005)
112EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: Maximizing Agreements with One-Sided Error with Applications to Heuristic Learning. Machine Learning 59(1-2): 99-123 (2005)
2004
111EENader H. Bshouty: Polynomial Time Prediction Strategy with Almost Optimal Mistake Probability. COLT 2004: 64-76
110EELaurence Bisht, Nader H. Bshouty, Lawrance Khoury: Learning with Errors in Answers to Membership Queries. FOCS 2004: 611-620
109EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: More efficient PAC-learning of DNF with membership queries under the uniform distribution. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 68(1): 205-234 (2004)
2003
108EENader H. Bshouty, Elchanan Mossel, Ryan O'Donnell, Rocco A. Servedio: Learning DNF from Random Walks. FOCS 2003: 189-
107EENader H. Bshouty: The monotone theory for the PAC-model. Inf. Comput. 186(1): 20-35 (2003)
106EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: Uniform-distribution attribute noise learnability. Inf. Comput. 187(2): 277-290 (2003)
105EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: On the Proper Learning of Axis-Parallel Concepts. Journal of Machine Learning Research 4: 157-176 (2003)
2002
104EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: Maximizing Agreements and CoAgnostic Learning. ALT 2002: 83-97
103EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: Exploring Learnability between Exact and PAC. COLT 2002: 244-254
102EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: Bounds for the Minimum Disagreement Problem with Applications to Learning Theory. COLT 2002: 271-286
101EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: On the Proper Learning of Axis Parallel Concepts. COLT 2002: 287-302
100EENader H. Bshouty, Dmitry Gavinsky: PAC = PAExact and Other Equivalent Models in Learning. FOCS 2002: 167-176
99EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: On the proper learning of axis parallel concepts Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC)(019): (2002)
98EENader H. Bshouty, Vitaly Feldman: On Using Extended Statistical Queries to Avoid Membership Queries. Journal of Machine Learning Research 2: 359-395 (2002)
97EENader H. Bshouty, Dmitry Gavinsky: On Boosting with Polynomially Bounded Distributions. Journal of Machine Learning Research 3: 483-506 (2002)
96EENader H. Bshouty, Nadav Eiron: Learning Monotone DNF from a Teacher that Almost Does Not Answer Membership Queries. Journal of Machine Learning Research 3: 49-57 (2002)
95EENader H. Bshouty, Yishay Mansour: Simple Learning Algorithms for Decision Trees and Multivariate Polynomials. SIAM J. Comput. 31(6): 1909-1925 (2002)
94 Nader H. Bshouty, Nadav Eiron, Eyal Kushilevitz: PAC learning with nasty noise. Theor. Comput. Sci. 288(2): 255-275 (2002)
2001
93EENader H. Bshouty, Dmitry Gavinsky: On Boosting with Optimal Poly-Bounded Distributions. COLT/EuroCOLT 2001: 490-506
92EENader H. Bshouty, Vitaly Feldman: On Using Extended Statistical Queries to Avoid Membership Queries. COLT/EuroCOLT 2001: 529-545
91EENader H. Bshouty, Nadav Eiron: Learning Monotone DNF from a Teacher That Almost Does Not Answer Membership Queries. COLT/EuroCOLT 2001: 546-557
90EENader H. Bshouty, Avi Owshanko: Learning Regular Sets with an Incomplete Membership Oracle. COLT/EuroCOLT 2001: 574-588
2000
89EEAmos Beimel, Francesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Eyal Kushilevitz, Stefano Varricchio: Learning functions represented as multiplicity automata. J. ACM 47(3): 506-530 (2000)
1999
88EENader H. Bshouty, Nadav Eiron, Eyal Kushilevitz: PAC Learning with Nasty Noise. ATL 1999: 206-218
87EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: More Efficient PAC-Learning of DNF with Membership Queries Under the Uniform Distribution. COLT 1999: 286-295
86EEElias Abboud, Nader Agha, Nader H. Bshouty, Nizar Radwan, Fathi Saleh: Learning Threshold Functions with Small Weights Using Membership Queries. COLT 1999: 318-322
85EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: Uniform-Distribution Attribute Noise Learnability. COLT 1999: 75-80
84EENader H. Bshouty, David K. Wilson: On Learning in the Presence of Unspecified Attribute Values. COLT 1999: 81-87
83EENader H. Bshouty, Lisa Higham, Jolanta Warpechowska-Gruca: Meeting Times of Random Walks on Graphs. Inf. Process. Lett. 69(5): 259-265 (1999)
82 Nader H. Bshouty: Lower Bounds for the Complexity of Functions in a Realistic RAM Model. J. Algorithms 32(1): 1-20 (1999)
81 Nader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson: Learning DNF over the Uniform Distribution Using a Quantum Example Oracle. SIAM J. Comput. 28(3): 1136-1153 (1999)
1998
80EENader H. Bshouty, Lynn Burroughs: Massaging a Linear Programming Solution to Give a 2-Approximation for a Generalization of the Vertex Cover Problem. STACS 1998: 298-308
79EENader H. Bshouty: A New Composition Theorem for Learning Algorithms. STOC 1998: 583-589
78 Nader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: On Learning Decision Trees with Large Output Domains. Algorithmica 20(1): 77-100 (1998)
77 Nader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: Learning Matrix Functions over Rings. Algorithmica 22(1/2): 91-111 (1998)
76EENader H. Bshouty: A New Composition Theorem for Learning Algorithms Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 5(13): (1998)
75EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Christino Tamon: Attribute Efficient PAC Learning of DNF with Membership Queries under the Uniform Distribution Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 5(76): (1998)
74 Nader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, H. David Mathias: Noise-Tolerant Parallel Learning of Geometric Concepts. Inf. Comput. 147(1): 89-110 (1998)
73EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: On Learning width Two Branching Programs. Inf. Process. Lett. 65(4): 217-222 (1998)
72EENader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, H. David Mathias, Subhash Suri, Hisao Tamaki: Noise-Tolerant Distribution-Free Learning of General Geometric Concepts. J. ACM 45(5): 863-890 (1998)
71EENader H. Bshouty: On the Direct Sum Conjecture in the Straight Line Model. J. Complexity 14(1): 49-62 (1998)
70 Daoud Bshouty, Nader H. Bshouty: On Interpolating Arithmetic Read-Once Formulas with Exponentiation. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 56(1): 112-124 (1998)
69 Nader H. Bshouty, Lisa Hellerstein: Attribute-Efficient Learning in Query and Mistake-Bound Models. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 56(3): 310-319 (1998)
68 Nader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve: Interpolating Arithmetic Read-Once Formulas in Parallel. SIAM J. Comput. 27(2): 401-413 (1998)
67 Nader H. Bshouty, Paul W. Goldberg, Sally A. Goldman, H. David Mathias: Exact Learning of Discretized Geometric Concepts. SIAM J. Comput. 28(2): 674-699 (1998)
1997
66 Francesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, Stefano Varricchio: On Learning Programs and Small Depth Circuits. EuroCOLT 1997: 150-161
65 Nader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: Learning Matrix Functions over Rings. EuroCOLT 1997: 27-37
64EEShai Ben-David, Nader H. Bshouty, Eyal Kushilevitz: A Composition Theorem for Learning Algorithms with Applications to Geometric Concept Classes. STOC 1997: 324-333
63 Nader H. Bshouty: Simple Learning Algorithms Using Divide and Conquer. Computational Complexity 6(2): 174-194 (1997)
62EENader H. Bshouty: On Learning Multivariate Polynomials Under the Uniform Distribution. Inf. Process. Lett. 61(6): 303-309 (1997)
61EENader H. Bshouty, Yishay Mansour, Baruch Schieber, Prasoon Tiwari: A Tight Bound for Approximating the Square Root. Inf. Process. Lett. 63(4): 211-213 (1997)
60 Nader H. Bshouty: Exact Learning of Formulas in Parallel. Machine Learning 26(1): 25-41 (1997)
1996
59EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: On Learning width Two Branching Programs (Extended Abstract). COLT 1996: 224-227
58EENader H. Bshouty, Lisa Hellerstein: Attribute-Efficient Learning in Query and Mistake-Bound Models. COLT 1996: 235-243
57 Amos Beimel, Francesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Eyal Kushilevitz, Stefano Varricchio: On the Applications of Multiplicity Automata in Learning. FOCS 1996: 349-358
56EENader H. Bshouty: Towards the Learnability of DNF Formulae. STOC 1996: 131-140
55EENader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, H. David Mathias, Subhash Suri, Hisao Tamaki: Noise-Tolerant Distribution-Free Learning of General Geometric Concepts. STOC 1996: 151-160
54EEShai Ben-David, Nader H. Bshouty, Eyal Kushilevitz: A Composition Theorem for Learning Algorithms with Applications to Geometric Concept Classes Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 3(59): (1996)
53EEFrancesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Stefano Varricchio: Learning Multivariate Polynomials from Substitution and Equivalence Queries Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 3(8): (1996)
52EEFrancesco Bergadano, Nader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, Stefano Varricchio: On Learning Branching Programs and Small Depth Circuits Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 3(9): (1996)
51EENader H. Bshouty: A Subexponential Exact Learning Algorithm for DNF Using Equivalence Queries. Inf. Process. Lett. 59(1): 37-39 (1996)
50EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon: On the Fourier Spectrum of Monotone Functions. J. ACM 43(4): 747-770 (1996)
49 Nader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, Thomas R. Hancock, Sleiman Matar: Asking Questions to Minimize Errors. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 52(2): 268-286 (1996)
48 Nader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve, Ricard Gavaldà, Sampath Kannan, Christino Tamon: Oracles and Queries That Are Sufficient for Exact Learning. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 52(3): 421-433 (1996)
1995
47EENader H. Bshouty, Jeffrey C. Jackson: Learning DNF over the Uniform Distribution using a Quantum Example Oracle. COLT 1995: 118-127
46EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon, David K. Wilson: On Learning Decision Trees with Large Output Domains (Extended Abstract). COLT 1995: 190-197
45EENader H. Bshouty, Zhixiang Chen, Scott E. Decatur, Steven Homer: On the Learnability of Zn-DNF Formulas (Extended Abstract). COLT 1995: 198-205
44EENader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, H. David Mathias: Noise-Tolerant Parallel Learning of Geometric Concepts. COLT 1995: 345-352
43EENader H. Bshouty: Simple Learning Algorithms Using Divide and Conquer. COLT 1995: 447-453
42EENader H. Bshouty: A Note on Learning Multivariate Polynomials Under the Uniform Distribution (Extended Abstract). COLT 1995: 79-82
41 Nader H. Bshouty, Yishay Mansour: Simple Learning Algorithms for Decision Trees and Multivariate Polynomials. FOCS 1995: 304-311
40EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon: On the Fourier spectrum of monotone functions (Extended Abstract). STOC 1995: 219-228
39EENader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve, Ricard Gavaldà, Sampath Kannan, Christino Tamon: Oracles and Queries That Are Sufficient for Exact Learning Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 2(15): (1995)
38EENader H. Bshouty, Christino Tamon: On the Fourier spectrum of Monotone Functions Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 2(32): (1995)
37EENader H. Bshouty: The Monotone Theory for the PAC-Model Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 2(59): (1995)
36EENader H. Bshouty: A Subexponential Exact Learning Algorithm for DNF Using Equivalence Queries Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 2(60): (1995)
35EENader H. Bshouty: Exact Learning Boolean Functions via the Monotone Theory Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 2(8): (1995)
34 Nader H. Bshouty: Exact Learning Boolean Function via the Monotone Theory. Inf. Comput. 123(1): 146-153 (1995)
33EENader H. Bshouty: On the Additive Complexity of 2 x 2 Matrix Multiplication. Inf. Process. Lett. 56(6): 329-335 (1995)
32 Nader H. Bshouty, Thomas R. Hancock, Lisa Hellerstein: Learning Boolean Read-Once Formulas over Generalized Bases. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 50(3): 521-542 (1995)
31 Nader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve, Wayne Eberly: Size-Depth Tradeoffs for Algebraic Formulas. SIAM J. Comput. 24(4): 682-705 (1995)
30 Nader H. Bshouty, Thomas R. Hancock, Lisa Hellerstein: Learning Arithmetic Read-Once Formulas. SIAM J. Comput. 24(4): 706-735 (1995)
1994
29EENader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve, Sampath Kannan, Christino Tamon: Oracles and Queries that are Sufficient for Exact Learning (Extended Abstract). COLT 1994: 130-139
28EEDaoud Bshouty, Nader H. Bshouty: On Learning Arithmetic Read-Once Formulas with Exponentiation (Extended Abstract). COLT 1994: 311-317
27 Nader H. Bshouty, Zhixiang Chen, Steven Homer: On Learning Discretized Geometric Concepts (Extended Abstract) FOCS 1994: 54-63
26 Nader H. Bshouty, Thomas R. Hancock, Lisa Hellerstein, Marek Karpinski: An Algorithm to Learn Read-Once Threshold Formulas, and Transformations Between Learning Models. Computational Complexity 4: 37-61 (1994)
25 Nader H. Bshouty: On the Complexity of Bilinear Forms over Associative Algebras. SIAM J. Comput. 23(4): 815-833 (1994)
1993
24EENader H. Bshouty, Sally A. Goldman, Thomas R. Hancock, Sleiman Matar: Asking Questions to Minimize Errors. COLT 1993: 41-50
23EENader H. Bshouty: On the Direct Sum Conjecture in the Straight Line Model. ESA 1993: 85-96
22 Nader H. Bshouty: Exact Learning via the Monotone Theory (Extended Abstract) FOCS 1993: 302-311
21EENader H. Bshouty: On the Complexity of Functions for Random Access Machines. J. ACM 40(2): 211-223 (1993)
1992
20EENader H. Bshouty, Thomas R. Hancock, Lisa Hellerstein: Learning Boolean Read-Once Formulas with Arbitrary Symmetric and Constant Fan-in Gates. COLT 1992: 1-15
19 Nader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve: On the Exact Learning of Formulas in Parallel (Extended Abstract) FOCS 1992: 513-522
18 Nader H. Bshouty, Geoffrey T. Falk: Compression of Dictionaries via Extensions to Front Coding. ICCI 1992: 361-364
17EENader H. Bshouty: Lower Bounds for the Complexity of Functions in a Realistic RAM Model. ISTCS 1992: 12-23
16 Nader H. Bshouty, Thomas R. Hancock, Lisa Hellerstein: Learning Arithmetic Read-Once Formulas STOC 1992: 370-381
15 Nader H. Bshouty, Yishay Mansour, Baruch Schieber, Prasoon Tiwari: Fast Exponentiation Using the Truncation Operation. Computational Complexity 2: 244-255 (1992)
14 Nader H. Bshouty: A Lower Bound for the Multiplication of Polynomials Modulo a Polynomial. Inf. Process. Lett. 41(6): 321-326 (1992)
13 Amir Averbuch, Nader H. Bshouty, Michael Kaminski: A Classification of Algorithms for Multiplying Polynomials of Small Degree over Finite Fields. J. Algorithms 13(4): 577-588 (1992)
1991
12 Nader H. Bshouty, Richard Cleve, Wayne Eberly: Size-Depth Tradeoffs for Algebraic Formulae FOCS 1991: 334-341
11EENader H. Bshouty: Lower Bounds for Algebraic Computation Trees of Functions with Finite Domains. ICCI 1991: 55-65
1990
10 Nader H. Bshouty, Michael Kaminski: Multiplication of Polynomials over Finite Fields. SIAM J. Comput. 19(3): 452-456 (1990)
9 Nader H. Bshouty: Maximal Rank of m x n x (mn - k) Tensors. SIAM J. Comput. 19(3): 467-471 (1990)
8 Nader H. Bshouty, Gadiel Seroussi: Generalizations of the Normal Basis Theorem of Finite Fields. SIAM J. Discrete Math. 3(3): 330-337 (1990)
1989
7 Nader H. Bshouty: On the Extended Direct Sum Conjecture STOC 1989: 177-185
6EEMichael Kaminski, Nader H. Bshouty: Multiplicative complexity of polynomial multiplication over finite fields. J. ACM 36(1): 150-170 (1989)
5 Nader H. Bshouty: A Lower Bound for Matrix Multiplication. SIAM J. Comput. 18(4): 759-765 (1989)
1988
4 Nader H. Bshouty: A Lower Bound for Matrix Multiplication FOCS 1988: 64-67
3 Gadiel Seroussi, Nader H. Bshouty: Vector sets for exhaustive testing of logic circuits. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 34(3): 513-522 (1988)
2 Michael Kaminski, David G. Kirkpatrick, Nader H. Bshouty: Addition Requirements for Matrix and Transposed Matrix Products. J. Algorithms 9(3): 354-364 (1988)
1987
1 Michael Kaminski, Nader H. Bshouty: Multiplicative complexity of polynomial multiplication over finite fields (Extended abstract) FOCS 1987: 138-140

Coauthor Index

1Elias Abboud [86]
2Nader Agha [86]
3Amir Averbuch [13]
4Amos Beimel [57] [89] [126]
5Shai Ben-David [54] [64]
6Rotem Bennet [115] [122]
7Iddo Bentov [121]
8Francesco Bergadano [52] [53] [57] [66] [89] [126]
9Laurence Bisht [110] [119] [125]
10Daoud Bshouty [28] [70]
11Lynn Burroughs [80] [99] [101] [102] [104] [105] [112] [116]
12Zhixiang Chen [27] [45]
13Richard Cleve [12] [19] [29] [31] [39] [48] [68]
14Scott E. Decatur [45]
15Wayne Eberly [12] [31]
16Nadav Eiron [88] [91] [94] [96]
17Geoffrey T. Falk [18]
18Vitaly Feldman [92] [98]
19Ricard Gavaldà [39] [48]
20Dmitry Gavinsky [93] [97] [100]
21Claudio Gentile [123] [124]
22Paul W. Goldberg [67]
23Sally A. Goldman [24] [44] [49] [55] [67] [72] [74]
24Thomas R. Hancock [16] [20] [24] [26] [30] [32] [49]
25Lisa Hellerstein [16] [20] [26] [30] [32] [58] [69]
26Lisa Higham [83]
27Steven Homer [27] [45]
28Jeffrey C. Jackson [47] [75] [81] [85] [87] [103] [106] [109] [114]
29Michael Kaminski [1] [2] [6] [10] [13] [117]
30Sampath Kannan [29] [39] [48]
31Marek Karpinski [26]
32Lawrance Khoury [110] [125]
33David G. Kirkpatrick [2]
34Eyal Kushilevitz [54] [57] [64] [88] [89] [94] [126]
35Yishay Mansour [15] [41] [61] [95]
36Sleiman Matar [24] [49]
37H. David Mathias [44] [55] [67] [72] [74]
38Hanna Mazzawi [118] [119] [127]
39Elchanan Mossel [108] [113]
40Ryan O'Donnell [108] [113]
41Avi Owshanko [90]
42Nizar Radwan [86]
43Fathi Saleh [86]
44Baruch Schieber [15] [61]
45Gadiel Seroussi [3] [8]
46Rocco A. Servedio [108] [113]
47Subhash Suri [55] [72]
48Hisao Tamaki [55] [72]
49Christino Tamon [29] [38] [39] [40] [46] [48] [50] [52] [59] [65] [66] [73] [75] [77] [78] [85] [87] [103] [106] [109] [114]
50Prasoon Tiwari [15] [61]
51Stefano Varricchio [52] [53] [57] [66] [89] [126]
52Jolanta Warpechowska-Gruca [83]
53Ehab Wattad [120]
54David K. Wilson [46] [59] [65] [73] [77] [78] [84]

Colors in the list of coauthors

Copyright © Tue Nov 3 08:52:44 2009 by Michael Ley (ley@uni-trier.de)